Homo sapiens L. (human) [HSA]

FULL NAME: 5' exonuclease Apollo


DESCRIPTION:
5'-3' exonuclease that plays a central role in telomere maintenance and protection during S-phase. Participates in the protection of telomeres against non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair, thereby ensuring that telomeres do not fuse. Plays a key role in telomeric loop (T loop) formation by being recruited by TERF2 at the leading end telomeres and by processing leading-end telomeres immediately after their replication via its exonuclease activity: generates 3' single-stranded overhang at the leading end telomeres avoiding blunt leading-end telomeres that are vulnerable to end-joining reactions and expose the telomere end in a manner that activates the DNA repair pathways. Together with TERF2, required to protect telomeres from replicative damage during replication by controlling the amount of DNA topoisomerase (TOP1, TOP2A and TOP2B) needed for telomere replication during fork passage and prevent aberrant telomere topology. Also involved in response to DNA damage: plays a role in response to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) by facilitating double-strand break formation. In case of spindle stress, involved in prophase checkpoint.

MISCELLANEOUS:
Was named 'Apollo' in reference to the twin brother of 'Artemis' in Greek mythology (PubMed:16730175 and PubMed:16730176). Artemis/DCLRE1C is a related nuclease.


STRUCTURE SIMILARITY:
Belongs to the DNA repair metallo-beta-lactamase (DRMBL) family.


POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION:
Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Ubiquitinated, leading to its degradation. Interaction with TERF2 protects it from ubiquitination.


PROTEIN TYPE(S):
DNase
5'-3' exonuclease


RELATED PATHWAY(S):
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway


Amino acids sequence

        10         20         30         40         50         60
MNGVLIPHTP IAVDFWSLRR AGTARLFFLS HMHSDHTVGL SSTWARPLYC SPITAHLLHR
        70         80         90        100        110        120
HLQVSKQWIQ ALEVGESHVL PLDEIGQETM TVTLLDANHC PGSVMFLFEG YFGTILYTGD
       130        140        150        160        170        180
FRYTPSMLKE PALTLGKQIH TLYLDNTNCN PALVLPSRQE AAHQIVQLIR KHPQHNIKIG
       190        200        210        220        230        240
LYSLGKESLL EQLALEFQTW VVLSPRRLEL VQLLGLADVF TVEEKAGRIH AVDHMEICHS
       250        260        270        280        290        300
NMLRWNQTHP TIAILPTSRK IHSSHPDIHV IPYSDHSSYS ELRAFVAALK PCQVVPIVSR
       310        320        330        340        350        360
RPCGGFQDSL SPRISVPLIP DSVQQYMSSS SRKPSLLWLL ERRLKRPRTQ GVVFESPEES
       370        380        390        400        410        420
ADQSQADRDS KKAKKEKLSP WPADLEKQPS HHPLRIKKQL FPDLYSKEWN KAVPFCESQK
       430        440        450        460        470        480
RVTMLTAPLG FSVHLRSTDE EFISQKTREE IGLGSPLVPM GDDDGGPEAT GNQSAWMGHG
       490        500        510        520        530
SPLSHSSKGT PLLATEFRGL ALKYLLTPVN FFQAGYSSRR FDQQVEKYHK PC

Encoded by DCLRE1B gene

FULL NAME: DNA cross-link repair 1B


OTHER NAME(S):
APOLLO
DKFZp686C24187
FLJ12810
FLJ13998
SNM1B
SNMIB


DESCRIPTION:
DNA interstrand cross-links prevent strand separation, thereby physically blocking transcription, replication, and segregation of DNA. DCLRE1B is one of several evolutionarily conserved genes involved in repair of interstrand cross-links (Dronkert et al., 2000 [PubMed 10848582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]


Nucleic acid sequence

        10         20         30         40         50         60
atgaatgggg tcctgatccc ccatacgccc atcgcagtgg acttctggag cctgcgccgg
        70         80         90        100        110        120
gctggcaccg cacgtctctt cttcttgtct cacatgcact cggaccacac cgtgggcctg
       130        140        150        160        170        180
tctagcacct gggcccggcc cctctactgc tccccaatta cagcccacct cttgcatcgt
       190        200        210        220        230        240
cacctacagg tatctaagca atggatccaa gccctggagg ttggtgagag ccatgtatta
       250        260        270        280        290        300
cccctagatg aaattggaca agagaccatg accgtaaccc tcctcgatgc caatcactgt
       310        320        330        340        350        360
cctggttctg tcatgtttct ctttgaagga tattttggaa ccatcctcta cacaggtgat
       370        380        390        400        410        420
tttcgataca caccatccat gctaaaggag ccagccctga cactggggaa acagatccat
       430        440        450        460        470        480
actttatacc tagacaacac caattgcaat ccagccctgg ttcttccttc ccgacaagaa
       490        500        510        520        530        540
gctgcccacc agattgtcca gctcattcga aaacacccac aacataacat aaagattgga
       550        560        570        580        590        600
ctctacagcc tgggaaagga atcactgctg gagcagctgg ccctggagtt tcagacctgg
       610        620        630        640        650        660
gtggtattga gtcctcggcg cctggagttg gtacagctac tgggcctggc agatgtgttc
       670        680        690        700        710        720
acagtggagg agaaggctgg ccgcatccat gcagtagacc atatggagat ctgccattcc
       730        740        750        760        770        780
aacatgctgc gttggaacca gacccaccct acgattgcta tccttcccac aagccgaaaa
       790        800        810        820        830        840
atccacagct cccaccctga tatccacgtc atcccttact ctgaccattc ctcttactcc
       850        860        870        880        890        900
gagcttcgtg cctttgtcgc agcactgaag ccttgccagg tggtgcccat tgtaagtcgg
       910        920        930        940        950        960
cggccctgtg gaggctttca ggacagtctg agccccagga tctccgtgcc cctgattccg
       970        980        990       1000       1010       1020
gactctgtac agcaatacat gagttcttcc tctagaaaac caagccttct ctggctgtta
      1030       1040       1050       1060       1070       1080
gaaaggaggc taaagaggcc gagaacccaa ggtgttgtgt ttgaatcccc tgaggaaagt
      1090       1100       1110       1120       1130       1140
gctgatcaat ctcaagctga cagagactca aagaaggcca agaaagagaa actttctccc
      1150       1160       1170       1180       1190       1200
tggcctgcgg accttgaaaa gcagccttcc caccatcctt tgcggatcaa gaagcagttg
      1210       1220       1230       1240       1250       1260
ttcccagatc tctatagcaa agaatggaac aaggcagtgc ctttctgtga gtctcaaaag
      1270       1280       1290       1300       1310       1320
agggtgacta tgttgacggc cccactggga ttttcagtgc acttaaggtc tacagatgag
      1330       1340       1350       1360       1370       1380
gagtttattt ctcaaaaaac cagggaggaa attggtttag ggtccccctt ggtacccatg
      1390       1400       1410       1420       1430       1440
ggagatgatg atggaggtcc agaagccaca gggaatcaga gtgcctggat gggccatggt
      1450       1460       1470       1480       1490       1500
tctcccctgt cccacagcag caagggcacc cctcttctag ctactgaatt caggggtcta
      1510       1520       1530       1540       1550       1560
gcactcaaat atcttctgac tccagtgaac tttttccagg cagggtattc ttccaggaga
      1570       1580       1590
tttgaccagc aagtggaaaa ataccataaa ccctgctga  

Last modification date: Oct. 2, 2011