Homo sapiens L. (human) [HSA]

FULL NAME: DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G


DESCRIPTION:
DNA deaminase (cytidine deaminase) that mediates a form of innate resistance to retroviral infections (at least to HIV-1 infection) by triggering G-to-A hypermutation in the newly synthesized viral DNA. The replacements C-to-U in the minus strand DNA of HIV-1 during reverse transcription, leads to G-to-A transitions in the plus strand. The inhibition of viral replication is either due to the degradation of the minus strand before its integration or to the lethality of the hypermutations. Modification of both DNA strands is not excluded. This antiviral activity is neutralized by the virion infectivity factor (VIF), that prevents the incorporation of APOBEC3G into progeny HIV-1 virions by both inhibiting its translation and/or by inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. May also prevent the transposition of a subset of retroelements. Binds a variety of RNAs, but does not display detectable APOB, NF1 and NAT1 mRNA editing.

MISCELLANEOUS:
Accumulation of APOBEC3G induced non-lethal hypermutation could contribute to the genetic variation of primate lentiviral populations.
It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22.
Inhibits also the infectivity of retroviral particles only distantly related to HIV-1, such as the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and the murine leukemia virus (MLV).
HIV-1 does not replicate productively in non-human primates with the exception of the chimpanzee. The primates APOBEC3G (rhesus macaque, chimpanzee and African green monkey) are active against HIV-1 without VIF. Only the chimpanzee APOBEC3G is inhibited by HIV-1 VIF.


STRUCTURE SIMILARITY:
Belongs to the cytidine and deoxycytidylate deaminase family.


CATALYTIC ACTIVITY:
Cytidine + H(2)O = uridine + NH(3).


POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION:
Ubiquitinated in the presence of HIV-1 VIF. Association with VIF targets the protein for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway.


Amino acids sequence

        10         20         30         40         50         60
MKPHFRNTVE RMYRDTFSYN FYNRPILSRR NTVWLCYEVK TKGPSRPPLD AKIFRGQVYS
        70         80         90        100        110        120
ELKYHPEMRF FHWFSKWRKL HRDQEYEVTW YISWSPCTKC TRDMATFLAE DPKVTLTIFV
       130        140        150        160        170        180
ARLYYFWDPD YQEALRSLCQ KRDGPRATMK IMNYDEFQHC WSKFVYSQRE LFEPWNNLPK
       190        200        210        220        230        240
YYILLHIMLG EILRHSMDPP TFTFNFNNEP WVRGRHETYL CYEVERMHND TWVLLNQRRG
       250        260        270        280        290        300
FLCNQAPHKH GFLEGRHAEL CFLDVIPFWK LDLDQDYRVT CFTSWSPCFS CAQEMAKFIS
       310        320        330        340        350        360
KNKHVSLCIF TARIYDDQGR CQEGLRTLAE AGAKISIMTY SEFKHCWDTF VDHQGCPFQP
       370        380
WDGLDEHSQD LSGRLRAILQ NQEN   

Encoded by APOBEC3G gene

FULL NAME: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G


OTHER NAME(S):
ARCD
ARP-9
ARP9
CEM-15
CEM15
FLJ12740
bK150C2.7
dJ494G10.1
MDS019


DESCRIPTION:
This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. The protein encoded by this gene has been found to be a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infectivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]


Nucleic acid sequence

        10         20         30         40         50         60
atgaagcctc acttcagaaa cacagtggag cgaatgtatc gagacacatt ctcctacaac
        70         80         90        100        110        120
ttttataata gacccatcct ttctcgtcgg aataccgtct ggctgtgcta cgaagtgaaa
       130        140        150        160        170        180
acaaagggtc cctcaaggcc ccctttggac gcaaagatct ttcgaggcca ggtgtattcc
       190        200        210        220        230        240
gaacttaagt accacccaga gatgagattc ttccactggt tcagcaagtg gaggaagctg
       250        260        270        280        290        300
catcgtgacc aggagtatga ggtcacctgg tacatatcct ggagcccctg cacaaagtgt
       310        320        330        340        350        360
acaagggata tggccacgtt cctggccgag gacccgaagg ttaccctgac catctttgtt
       370        380        390        400        410        420
gcccgcctct actacttctg ggacccagat taccaggagg cgcttcgcag cctgtgtcag
       430        440        450        460        470        480
aaaagagacg gtccgcgtgc caccatgaag atcatgaatt atgacgaatt tcagcactgt
       490        500        510        520        530        540
tggagcaagt tcgtgtacag ccaaagagag ctatttgagc cttggaataa tctgcctaaa
       550        560        570        580        590        600
tattatatat tactgcacat catgctgggg gagattctca gacactcgat ggatccaccc
       610        620        630        640        650        660
acattcactt tcaactttaa caatgaacct tgggtcagag gacggcatga gacttacctg
       670        680        690        700        710        720
tgttatgagg tggagcgcat gcacaatgac acctgggtcc tgctgaacca gcgcaggggc
       730        740        750        760        770        780
tttctatgca accaggctcc acataaacac ggtttccttg aaggccgcca tgcagagctg
       790        800        810        820        830        840
tgcttcctgg acgtgattcc cttttggaag ctggacctgg accaggacta cagggttacc
       850        860        870        880        890        900
tgcttcacct cctggagccc ctgcttcagc tgtgcccagg aaatggctaa attcatttca
       910        920        930        940        950        960
aaaaacaaac acgtgagcct gtgcatcttc actgcccgca tctatgatga tcaaggaaga
       970        980        990       1000       1010       1020
tgtcaggagg ggctgcgcac cctggccgag gctggggcca aaatttcaat aatgacatac
      1030       1040       1050       1060       1070       1080
agtgaattta agcactgctg ggacaccttt gtggaccacc agggatgtcc cttccagccc
      1090       1100       1110       1120       1130       1140
tgggatggac tagatgagca cagccaagac ctgagtggga ggctgcgggc cattctccag
      1150
aatcaggaaa actga    

Last modification date: Oct. 2, 2011