Rad6 pathway (Rad6)

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Role of the Rad6 epistasis group in DNA damage bypass. The ring-shaped PCNA homotrimer encircles DNA and, by tethering DNA Polδ to the template, it serves as an important processivity factor for DNA replication. In the presence of DNA damage (indicated by an asterisk), PCNA becomes monoubiquitinated (red circle) at the lysine residue 164 by the ubiquitin conjugating/ligating complex Rad6/Rad18. PCNA-Ub can directly activate TLS polymerases (such as Polη, Rev1 and Polζ), enabling an error-prone damage bypass. Alternatively, K63-linked polyubiquitylation of PCNA-Ub by the Rad5/Mms2/Ubc13 complex enables template switching and thus an error-free damage bypass. Besides ubiquitylation, PCNA can also be SUMOylated (black circle) at the lysine residue 164. PCNA–SUMO recruits the anti-recombinogenic Srs2 helicase, which prohibits Rad51 filament formation and is thought to favour damage tolerance indirectly.
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ORTHOLOGY CLASS Homo sapiens L. (human) [HSA] Mus musculus L. (mouse) [MMU] Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas (nematode) [CEL] Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (fruit fly) [DME] Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen (budding yeast) [SCE] Schizo-saccharomyces pombe Lindner (fission yeast) [SPO] Escherichia coli Migula (bacterium) K-12 MG1655 [ECO] Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouse-ear cress) [ATH]
ko:K10580 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N [EC:6.3.2.19]) UBC13 (UBE2N)
UBE2N
UBE2NL
Mcg1038069
Ube2n
ubc-13 ben
AT16033p
UBC13 ubc13 UBC36
ko:K10704 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant) MMS2 (UBE2V2)
UBE2V1
TMEM189-UBE2V1
TMEM189
Tmem189
Ube2v1
Ube2v2
uev-1
Y53C10A.5
Uev1A
Kua
MMS2 mms2 MMZ1
MMZ3
UEV1D
ko:K10627 (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RAD18 [EC:6.3.2.19]) RAD18 Rad18 RAD18 rhp18
ko:K10574 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 B [EC:6.3.2.19]) RAD6 homolog B Ube2b
ko:K10573 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A [EC:6.3.2.19]) RAD6 homolog A Ube2a ubc-1 UbcD6 RAD6 rhp6 ATUBC2
UBC3
UBC1

Last modification date: Oct. 3, 2011