transcription factors

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DESCRIPTION:

Transcription factors are the proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA. Transcription factors perform this function alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes.
Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living organisms. The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, and larger genomes tend to have more transcription factors per gene.

Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Depending on the transcription factor, the transcription of the adjacent gene is either up- or down-regulated. Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression. These mechanisms include:
- stabilize or block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA
- catalyze the acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins. The transcription factor can either do this directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity. Many transcription factors use one or the other of two opposing mechanisms to regulate transcription:
          o histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity – acetylates histone proteins, which weakens the association of DNA with histones, which make the DNA more accessible to transcription, thereby up-regulating transcription
          o histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity – deacetylates histone proteins, which strengthens the association of DNA with histones, which make the DNA less accessible to transcription, thereby down-regulating transcription
- recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex.

A defining feature of transcription factors is that they contain one or more DNA-binding domains (DBDs), which attach to specific sequences of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Additional proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetylases, deacetylases, kinases, and methylases, while also playing crucial roles in gene regulation, lack DNA-binding domains, and, therefore, are not classified as transcription factors.

ABBREVIATIONS:
TFs


OTHER NAME(S):
sequence-specific DNA-binding factors


RELATED DISEASES:


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ORTHOLOGY CLASS Homo sapiens L. (human) [HSA] Mus musculus L. (mouse) [MMU] Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas (nematode) [CEL] Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (fruit fly) [DME] Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen (budding yeast) [SCE] Schizo-saccharomyces pombe Lindner (fission yeast) [SPO] Escherichia coli Migula (bacterium) K-12 MG1655 [ECO] Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouse-ear cress) [ATH]
ko:K14651 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 15) TAF15 Taf15 gi:17532119
ko:K14650 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 3) TAF3 Taf3 TAF3 taf3
ko:K14649 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 8) TAF8 Taf8 taf-8 Taf8 TAF8
ko:K14535 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 9 / adenylate kinase [EC:2.7.4.3]) TAF9 Taf9b
Taf9
gi:17532769 Ak6 FAP7 gi:19075981 gi:334188524
ko:K10845 (TFIIH basal transcription factor complex TTD-A subunit) GTF2H5 Gtf2h5 gi:17556222 Tfb5 TFB5 tfb5 gi:15221323
gi:15221323
ko:K10844 (DNA excision repair protein ERCC-2 [EC:3.6.4.12]) ERCC2 (XPD) Ercc2 gi:71994598 Xpd RAD3 rad15 UVH6
UVH6
ko:K10843 (DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12]) ERCC3 (XPB) Ercc3 gi:17556358 hay SSL2 ptr8 XPB2
XPB2
ko:K10842 (CDK-activating kinase assembly factor MAT1) MNAT1 Mnat1 mnat-1 Mat1 TFB3 pmh1 gi:145334183
gi:145334183
ko:K06634 (cyclin H) CCNH Ccnh cyh-1 CycH CCL1 mcs2 CYCH;1
CYCH;1
ko:K03144 (transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 4) GTF2H4 Gtf2h4 gi:32565796 mrn TFB2 tfb2 gi:334186626
gi:42566894
ko:K03143 (transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 3) GTF2H3 Gtf2h3 TFIIH sub 3 (hypothetical protein) Tfb4 TFB4 tfb4 gi:18394597
gi:18394597
ko:K03142 (transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 2) GTF2H2
GTF2H2C
GTF2H2D
Gtf2h2 gi:17555086 Ssl1 SSL1 ssl1 GTF2H2
GTF2H2
ko:K03141 (transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 1) GTF2H1 Gtf2h1 gi:71992201 Tfb1 TFB1 tfb1 gi:42562765
gi:240255685
gi:240255685
gi:42562765
ko:K03140 (transcription initiation factor TFIID/TFIIF subunit) TAF14 tfg3
ko:K03139 (transcription initiation factor TFIIF subunit beta [EC:3.6.4.12]) GTF2F2 Gtf2f2 gi:25151550 TfIIFbeta TFG2 tfg2 gi:15222264
gi:334185929
ko:K03138 (transcription initiation factor TFIIF subunit alpha) GTF2F1 Gtf2f1 gi:17531417 TfIIFalpha TFG1 Tfg1 RAP74
ko:K03137 (transcription initiation factor TFIIE subunit beta) GTF2E2 Gtf2e2 gi:17534359 TfIIEbeta TFA2 tfa2 gi:15233477
gi:15235379
ko:K03136 (transcription initiation factor TFIIE subunit alpha) GTF2E1 gi:85701612
Gtf2e1
gi:17544578 TfIIEalpha TFA1 tfa1 gi:18379079
gi:145340451
gi:15233409
ko:K03135 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 11) TAF11
TAF11-like
Taf11 taf-11.1
taf-11.2
taf-11.3
Taf11 TAF11 taf11 TAF11b
TAF11
ko:K03134 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 10) TAF10 Taf10 taf-10 Taf10b
Taf10
TAF10 taf10 TAFII15
ko:K03133 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 9B) TAF9B Taf9b taf-9 e(y)1 TAF9 taf9 TAFII21
ko:K03132 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 7) TAF7
TAF7L
Taf7l
Taf7
taf-7.1
taf-7.2
Taf7 TAF7 ptr6 TAF7
ko:K03131 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 6) TAF6
TAF6L
Taf6l
Taf6
taf-6.1 mia
Taf6
TAF6 taf6 TAFII59
TAF6B
ko:K03130 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 5) TAF5L
TAF5
Taf5
Taf5l
taf-5 can
wda
Taf5
TAF5 taf5
taf73
TAF5
ko:K03129 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4) TAF4
TAF4B
Taf4a
Taf4b
taf-4 Taf4
ko:K03128 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 2) TAF2 Taf2 taf-2 Taf2 TAF2 taf2 TAF2
ko:K03127 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 13) TAF13 Taf13
Taf13
taf-13 Taf13 TAF13 taf13 TAF13
ko:K03126 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 12) TAF12 Taf12 Taf12 TAF12 taf12 TAF12
ko:K03125 (transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 1) TAF1L
TAF1
Taf1
Taf1
taf-1
taf-1
Taf1
Taf1
TAF1
TAF1
taf111
taf111
HAF2
HAF2
HAF01
HAF01
ko:K03124 (transcription initiation factor TFIIB) GTF2B Gtf2b ttb-1 TfIIB SUA7 gi:19115141 TFIIB
gi:15236883
PBRP
gi:15228267
gi:15230282
gi:15228689
ko:K03123 (transcription initiation factor TFIIA small subunit) GTF2A2 Gtf2a2
THIIA2-like
gi:17551834
gi:17556689
TfIIA-S
TfIIA-S-2
TOA2 gi:19075263 gi:15233829
ko:K03122 (transcription initiation factor TFIIA large subunit) GTF2A1
GTF2A1L
Gtf2a1
Gtf2a1l
pqn-51 TfIIA-L TOA1 gi:19112462 gi:15237841
gi:18390773
gi:30680153
ko:K03121 (transcription initiation factor TFII-I) GTF2IRD1
GTF2I
Gtf2ird1
Gtf2i
ko:K03120 (transcription initiation factor TFIID TATA-box-binding protein) TBPL1
TBP
TBPL2
Tbp
Tbpl1
Tbpl2
tbp-1
tlf-1
Trf
Trf2
Tbp
SPT15 tbp1 TBP1
TBP2
ko:K02202 (cyclin-dependent kinase 7 [EC:2.7.11.22]) CDK7 Cdk7 cdk-7 Cdk7 KIN28 mcs6 gi:15220917
CAK4
gi:15219522
CAK4
CDKD1;3
CDKD1;1

Last modification date: Sept. 21, 2011