translesion synthesis (TLS)

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DESCRIPTION:

Translesion synthesis is a DNA damage tolerance process that allows the DNA replication machinery to replicate past DNA lesions such as thymine dimers or AP sites. It involves switching out regular DNA polymerases for specialized translesion polymerases, often with larger active sites that can facilitate the insertion of bases opposite damaged nucleotides. The polymerase switching is thought to be mediated by, among other factors, the post-translational modification of the replication processivity factor PCNA or bacterial beta clamp. Translesion synthesis polymerases often have low fidelity (high propensity to insert wrong bases) relative to regular polymerases. However, many are extremely efficient at inserting correct bases opposite specific types of damage. From a cellular perspective, risking the introduction of point mutations during translesion synthesis may be preferable to resorting to more drastic mechanisms of DNA repair, which may cause gross chromosomal aberrations or cell death.


ABBREVIATIONS:
TLS
TLR


OTHER NAME(S):
DNA damage tolerance pathway
translesion replication
repair synthesis


RELATED DISEASES:


DAMAGES RECOGNIZED AND REMOVED:


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ORTHOLOGY CLASS Homo sapiens L. (human) [HSA] Mus musculus L. (mouse) [MMU] Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas (nematode) [CEL] Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (fruit fly) [DME] Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen (budding yeast) [SCE] Schizo-saccharomyces pombe Lindner (fission yeast) [SPO] Escherichia coli Migula (bacterium) K-12 MG1655 [ECO] Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouse-ear cress) [ATH]
ko:K02336 (DNA polymerase II [EC:2.7.7.7]) DNA Pol II
ko:K02349 (DNA polymerase theta subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) POLθ (POLQ) Polq polq-1 mus308 TEBICHI
ko:K02330 (DNA polymerase beta subunit [EC:2.7.7.7 4.2.99.-]) POLβ (POLB) mPolβ (mPolB)
ko:K03503 (DNA polymerase V [EC:3.4.21.-]) UmuD
ko:K03502 (DNA polymerase V) DNA Pol V
ko:K02346 (DNA polymerase IV [EC:2.7.7.7]) DNA Pol IV
ko:K03515 (DNA repair protein REV1 [EC:2.7.7.-]) REV1L (REV1) Rev1 rev-1 Rev1 REV1 rev1 REV1
ko:K03512 (DNA polymerase lambda subunit [EC:2.7.7.7 4.2.99.-]) POLλ (POLL) mPolλ (mPOLL) DNA Pol lambda
ko:K03511 (DNA polymerase kappa subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) POLκ (POLK/DINB1) Polk Polk-1 mug40 POLK
ko:K03510 (DNA polymerase iota subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) POLι (POLI/RAD30B) Poli DNApol-iota
ko:K03509 (DNA polymerase eta subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) POLη (POLH /RAD30A) Polh polh-1 DNApol-eta RAD30 eso1 POLH
ko:K03508 (DNA polymerase zeta subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) REV7
ko:K02350 (DNA polymerase zeta subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]) REV3L
POLζ (POLZ/REV3)
Rev3l polz mus205 REV3 rev3 ATREV3

References:

  • DNA replication and repair bypass machines.

    , , : [PUBMED]

Last modification date: Oct. 11, 2011