Please note: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is not intended as a diagnosis of your problem, but rather is provided as a helpful guide for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Information is not necessarily complete. Please see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Please note: DNAtraffic database is the project under construction and information on this page is not finished yet.

Carmustine


ACCESSION NB: DB00262 (APRD00006)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Not Available

CATEGORIES:
Antineoplastic Agents Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating

ABSORPTION: 5 to 28% bioavailability

INDICATION:
For the treatment of brain tumors, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease and Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Carmustine is one of the nitrosoureas indicated as palliative therapy as a single agent or in established combination therapy with other approved chemotherapeutic agents in treatment of brain tumors, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Although it is generally agreed that carmustine alkylates DNA and RNA, it is not cross resistant with other alkylators. As with other nitrosoureas, it may also inhibit several key enzymatic processes by carbamoylation of amino acids in proteins.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Carmustine causes cross-links in DNA and RNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA synthesis, RNA production and RNA translation (protein synthesis). Carmustine also binds to and modifies (carbamoylates) glutathione reductase. This leads to cell death.

PROTEIN BINDING:
80%

METABOLISM:
Hepatic and rapid with active metabolites. Metabolites may persist in the plasma for several days.

TOXICITY:
The oral LD50s in rat and mouse are 20 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg, respectively. Side effects include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea. Toxic effects include pulmonary fibrosis (20-0%) and bone marrow toxicity.

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Humans and other mammals