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Mitomycin (MMC)


ACCESSION NB: DB00305 (APRD00284)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional alkylating agents causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis. [PubChem]

VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Not Available

CATEGORIES:
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Antibiotics, Antineoplastic Alkylating Agents Cross-Linking Reagents

ABSORPTION: Erratic.

INDICATION:
For treatment of malignant neoplasm of lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive organs, peritoneum, female breast, and urinary bladder.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Mitomycin is one of the older chemotherapy drugs, which has been around and in use for decades. It is an antibiotic which has been shown to have antitumor activity. Mitomycin selectively inhibits the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The guanine and cytosine content correlates with the degree of mitomycin-induced cross-linking. At high concentrations of the drug, cellular RNA and protein synthesis are also suppressed. Mitomycin has been shown in vitro to inhibit B cell, T cell, and macrophage proliferation and impair antigen presentation, as well as the secretion of interferon gamma, TNFa, and IL-2.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Mitomycin is activated in vivo to a bifunctional and trifunctional alkylating agent. Binding to DNA leads to cross-linking and inhibition of DNA synthesis and function. Mitomycin is cell cycle phase-nonspecific.

PROTEIN BINDING:
Not Available

METABOLISM:
Primarily hepatic, some in various other tissues.

TOXICITY:
Oral, mouse: LD50 = 23 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 30 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting.

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Humans and other mammals