Please note: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is not intended as a diagnosis of your problem, but rather is provided as a helpful guide for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Information is not necessarily complete. Please see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Please note: DNAtraffic database is the project under construction and information on this page is not finished yet.

Pentamidine


ACCESSION NB: DB00738 (APRD00303, EXPT02625)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects. [PubChem]

VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Not Available

CATEGORIES:
Antifungal Agents Trypanocidal Agents Antiprotozoal Agents

ABSORPTION: Absorbed poorly through the gastrointestinal tract and is usually administered parenterally.

INDICATION:
For the treatment of pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal agent. It is an aromatic diamidine, and is known to have activity against Pneumocystis carinii. The exact nature of its antiprotozoal action is unknown. in vitro studies with mammalian tissues and the protozoan Crithidia oncopelti indicate that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids and proteins. Little is known about the drug's pharmacokinetics. The medication is also useful in Leishmaniasis and in prophylaxis against sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Hydration before treatment lessens the incidence and severity of side effects, which include liver or kidney dysfunction, hypertension, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hypocalemia, leukopenia, thrombcytopenia, anemia, and allergic reaction. It is generally well-tolerated.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
The mode of action of pentamidine is not fully understood. It is thought that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and proteins.

PROTEIN BINDING:
69%

METABOLISM:
Hepatic.

TOXICITY:
Symptoms of overdose include pain, nausea, anorexia, hypotension, fever, rash, bad taste in mouth, confusion/hallucinations, dizziness, and diarrhea.

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Pneumocystis carinii