Please note: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is not intended as a diagnosis of your problem, but rather is provided as a helpful guide for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Information is not necessarily complete. Please see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Please note: DNAtraffic database is the project under construction and information on this page is not finished yet.

Cinoxacin


ACCESSION NB: DB00827 (APRD00873)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
Synthetic antimicrobial related to oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid and used in urinary tract infections. [PubChem]

CATEGORIES:
Anti-Infective Agents

ABSORPTION: Rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The presence of food delays absorption but does does not affect total absorption.

INDICATION:
For the treatment of initial and recurrent urinary tract infections in adults caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae), and Enterobacter species.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Cinoxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent with in vitro activity against many gram-negative aerobic bacteria, particularly strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Cinoxacin inhibits bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is bactericidal, and is active over the entire urinary pH range. Cross resistance with nalidixic acid has been demonstrated.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Evidence exists that cinoxacin binds strongly, but reversibly, to DNA, interfering with synthesis of RNA and, consequently, with protein synthesis. It appears to also inhibit DNA gyrase. This enzyme is necessary for proper replicated DNA separation. By inhibiting this enzyme, DNA replication and cell division is inhibited.

PROTEIN BINDING:
60 to 80%

METABOLISM:
Hepatic, with approximately 30-40% metabolized to inactive metabolites.

TOXICITY:
Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous LD50 in the rat is 3610 mg/kg, 1380 mg/kg, and 860 mg/kg, respectively. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous LD50 in the mouse is 2330 mg/kg, 900 mg/kg, and 850 mg/kg, respectively.Symptoms following an overdose of cinoxacin may include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, and diarrhea. The severity of the epigastric distress and the diarrhea are dose related. Headache, dizziness, insomnia, photophobia, tinnitus, and a tingling sensation have been reported in some patients.

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria