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Furazolidone


ACCESSION NB: DB00614 (APRD00988)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone binds bacterial DNA which leads to the gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)

CATEGORIES:
Anti-Infective Agents, Local Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Antitrichomonal Agents Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

ABSORPTION: Radiolabeled drug studies indicate that furazolidone is well absorbed following oral administration

INDICATION:
For the specific and symptomatic treatment of bacterial or protozoal diarrhea and enteritis caused by susceptible organisms.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Furoxone has a broad antibacterial spectrum covering the majority of gastrointestinal tract pathogens including E. coli, staphylococci, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Aerobacter aerogenes, Vibrio cholerae and Giardia lamblia. Its bactericidal activity is based upon its interference with DNA replication and protein production; this antimicrobial action minimizes the development of resistant organisms.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Furazolidone and its related free radical products are believed to bind DNA and induce cross-links. Bacterial DNA is particularly susceptible to this drug leading to high levels of mutations (transitions and transversions) in the bacterial chromosome.

METABOLISM:
Furazolidone is rapidly and extensively metabolized; the primary metabolic pathway identified begins with nitro-reduction to the aminofuran derivative. Two major metabolites are produced: 3-amino-2-oxazolidone (AOZ) or beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH). AOZ is responsible for monoamine oxidase inhibition. Detoxification and elimination of the drug is done primarily by conjugation with glutathione.

TOXICITY:
Reactions to Furoxone have been reported including a fall in blood pressure, urticaria, fever, arthralgia, and a vesicular morbilliform rash. Other adverse effects can include a brown discoloration of the urine; hemolysis can occur in G6PDH-deficient patients. The drug has a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effect and should never be given concurrently to individuals already taking MAO inhibitors.

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Microbes (bacteria, parasites)