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Daunorubicin


ACCESSION NB: DB00694 (APRD00521)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of leukemia and other neoplasms. [PubChem]

CATEGORIES:
Antineoplastic Agents Antibiotics Antibiotics, Antineoplastic

INDICATION:
For remission induction in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (myelogenous, monocytic, erythroid) of adults and for remission induction in acute lymphocytic leukemia of children and adults.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Daunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Daunorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Daunorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Daunorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Daunorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes.

PROTEIN BINDING:
97% binding-albumin

METABOLISM:
Hepatic

TOXICITY:
LD50=20 mg/kg (mice, IV); LD50=13 mg/kg (rat, IV)

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Humans and other mammals