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Trimethoprim


ACCESSION NB: DB00440 (APRD00103)


TYPE: small molecule


GROUP: approved


DESCRIPTION:
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to pyrimethamine. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by sulfonamides and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. Trimethoprim resistance has been reported. [PubChem]

CATEGORIES:
Anti-Infectives Antimalarials Folic Acid Antagonists Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary

ABSORPTION: Readily and almost completely absorbed in the GI tract with peak serum concentrations attained 1-4 hours after oral administration. Widely distributed to tissues and fluids including kidney, lung, seminal fluid, aqueous humour, middle ear fluid, sputum, vaginal secretions, bile, bone and CSF.

INDICATION:
For the treatment of urinary tract infections, uncomplicated pyelonephritis (with sulfamethoxazole) and mild acute prostatitis. May be used as pericoital (with sulfamethoxazole) or continuous prophylaxis in females with recurrent cystitis. May be used as an alternative to treat asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy (only before the last 6 weeks of pregnancy). Other uses include: alternative agent in respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitus, bronchitis and pneumonia), treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (acute or prophylaxis), Nocardia infections, and traveller's diarrhea.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Trimethoprim is a pyrimidine analogue that disrupts folate synthesis, an essential part of the thymidine synthesis pathway. Inhibition of the enzyme starves the bacteria of nucleotides necessary for DNA replication.The drug, therefore, exhibits bactericidal activity.

MECHANISM OF ACTION:
Trimethoprim binds to dihydrofolate reductase and inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). THF is an essential precursor in the thymidine synthesis pathway and interference with this pathway inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis. Trimethoprim's affinity for bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is several thousand times greater than its affinity for human dihydrofolate reductase. Sulfamethoxazole inhibits dihydrofolate synthetase (aka dihydropteroate synthetase), an enzyme involved further upstream in the same pathway. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used in combination due to their synergistic effects. This drug combination also reduces the development of resistance that is seen when either drug is used alone.

PROTEIN BINDING:
42-46% bound to plasma proteins

METABOLISM:
Hepatic metabolism to oxide and hydroxylated metabolites.

TOXICITY:
LD50=4850 (orally in mice)

AFECTED ORGANISMS:
Gram negative and gram positive bacteria