DNA damage

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NAME PROTEINS MAIN SOURCE(S) MAIN EFFECT(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
1,N6-alpha-hydroxyethano-A (HEA) lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:A SMUG1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
3,N4-alpha-HPC Mug acrolein (ACR) base excision repair (BER)
N,4-methyl C in 5'-CAGCTG-3' DNA methyltransferase no mutagenesis
1-ethyl A (1etA) ALKBH2
AlkB
ALKBH3
ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
direct reversal (DR)
O6-ethyl G (O6etG) MGMT ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic direct reversal (DR)
3-propyl C (3pC) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
mutagenesis
point mutation
1,N2-propano-G (PG) lipid peroxidation (LPO) cell cycle arrest
stalled replication fork
1,N2-beta-OH-ethano G (HEG) lipid peroxidation (LPO)
trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
3,N4-alpha-OH-gamma-methyl-propano-C (mHPC) Mug crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
carcinogen
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
5,6-dihydro U (5,6-diH-U) Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
1-OH-propyl A (1hpA) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
mutagenesis
point mutation
1-propyl A (1pA) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
mutagenesis
point mutation
1,N6-alpha-hydroxypropano-A (HPA) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
8-methyl G (8meG) AlkA methyl radicals no mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
deoxyuridine Ung
Mug
TDG
SMUG1
UNG
spontaneous deamination AP-site
C→T transition
G→A transition
transition
base excision repair (BER)
3,N4-hydroxyethano C
5-hydroxy C (5-OH-C) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Mug
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
C→T transition
transition
base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
3,N4-hydroxypropyl-C (HPC) Mug acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-alpha-methyl-gamma-OH-propano-G (mHPG) UvrC
UvrB
crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
N1-OH-ethyl A (1heA) ANPG (MPG) ethylene oxide (EtO) mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C ANPG (MPG)
hOGG1
NEIL1
NEIL2
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
N2-OH-propyl-G (hpG) propylene oxide (PPO)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
mutagenesis
point mutation
3-methyl A (3-meA) in ssDNA AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
streptozotocin
AP-site
A→T transversion
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:T NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
2-oxoA MUTYH
MutY
reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:8-oxoG MUTYH reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:G MBD4 (MED1) cancer chemotherapy cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
5,6-dihydroxy C (5,6-diOH-C) Nth (endo III) reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
C→T transition
mutagenesis
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A MutY
hOGG1
NEIL2
reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
imidazole ring-opened N-2-aminofluorene-C8-guanine Fpg (MutM) base excision repair (BER)
dU in ssDNA Mug
Ung
UNG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
base excision repair (BER)
dU in dsDNA Ung
Mug
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:C MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:G MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
dU from U:A UNG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
dU from U:G Mug
Ung
UNG
TDG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
Tg from Tg:A NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
stalled replication fork base excision repair (BER)
Tg from Tg:G NEIL1
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
stalled replication fork base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
T from T:G Mug
TDG
DNA replication errors mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
ethenoC from ethenoC:G TDG
SMUG1
base excision repair (BER)
T from T:T TDG DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
T from T:C TDG base excision repair (BER)
T from T:O6-meG TDG base excision repair (BER)
aflatoxin-FapyG Fpg (MutM)
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
aflatoxin carcinogen
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
B[a]P-guanine UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide adduct
benzopyrene
-2 frameshift
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3-methyl C (3meC) AlkB
ALKBH2
ALKBH3
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
5'-AMP end APTX abortive DNA ligation
repair intermediate
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
3'-OH end XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX1
APEX2
DnaQ
TREX2
TREX1 (DNase III)
repair intermediate apoptosis
cell cycle arrest
DNA replication
base excision repair (BER)
mismatch repair (MMR)
homologous recombination (HR)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
5'-P end RecJ
FEN1 (DNase IV)
DNA Pol I
repair intermediate cell cycle arrest DNA replication
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
mismatch repair (MMR)
homologous recombination (HR)
non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)
open ring forms of ethenoA Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
base excision repair (BER)
U or T from U/TpG:5meCpG MBD4 (MED1) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
U or T from U/T:G MBD4 (MED1) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
3,N4-etheno-C (εC) in dsDNA Mug
TDG
AlkB
SMUG1
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
C→A transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
5'-dRP termini FEN1 (DNase IV)
POLβ (POLB)
DNA Pol I
RecJ
HMGB1
POLγ (POLG)
POLλ (POLL)
repair intermediate cytotoxic DNA replication
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
mismatch repair (MMR)
homologous recombination (HR)
non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)
translesion synthesis (TLS)
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:A SMUG1 cancer chemotherapy cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G MBD4 (MED1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) A→G transition
G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
aflatoxin-G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
aflatoxin carcinogen
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1C (OPC) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
carcinogen
C→T transition
mutagenesis
transition
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5-OH-meU in ssDNA SMUG1
MBD4 (MED1)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
5'-TOP2 termini TDP2 cancer chemotherapy
repair intermediate
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
M2G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
carcinogen
mutagenesis
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
MUS81
EME1
ERCC1
SLX4
SLX1A
SLX1B
TOP3A
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
mitomycin C
psoralen
cisplatin
nitrogen mustard
cancer chemotherapy
acrolein (ACR)
crotonaldehyde (CRA)
trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
homologous recombination (HR)
DNA replication
intrAstrand crosslink UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
mitomycin C
psoralen
cisplatin
cancer chemotherapy
nitrogen mustard
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3,N4-ethano-C (EC) AlkA bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
M3C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
carcinogen
mutagenesis
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N2-etheno-G (εG) in ssDNA ALKBH2 lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
deletion
G→C transversion
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-T (5-OH-6-H-T) Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
FapyA Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
3-methylU in ssDNA FTO
3-ethyl C (3etC) AlkB ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
C→T transition
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
transition
direct reversal (DR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-C (5-OH-6-H-C) Nth (endo III) reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
base excision repair (BER)
8-(hydroxymethyl)-εC APEX1 base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl-U (3meU) in RNA FTO
5,6-dihydroxy U (5,6-diOH-U) Nth (endo III)
Ung
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
cell cycle arrest
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
T→A transversion
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
3-methylC (3meC) in ssDNA ALKBH3
ALKBH1
AlkB
alkylating agents mutagenesis direct reversal (DR)
AP-site Nfo (endo IV)
APEX1
APEX2
XthA (exo III)
TDP1
UvrC
UvrB
DDB2 (XPE)
unstable adducts
repair intermediate
-1 frameshift
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
8-oxodGTP MutT reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulation of nucleotide pools
3-methylC (3meC) in RNA AlkB alkylating agents mutagenesis direct reversal (DR)
3'-TOP1 termini TDP1 repair intermediate apoptosis
cytotoxic
base excision repair (BER)
MePT Ada N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
direct reversal (DR)
8-oxodGDP MutT reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulation of nucleotide pools
1-methyl G (1meG) AlkB
ANPG (MPG)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
G→A transition
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
OEG UvrC
UvrB
vinyl chloride metabolites no mutagenesis nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
FapyG Fpg (MutM)
hOGG1
NEIL1
NEIL3
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxy-U (5-OH-U) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Ung
Mug
Nei (endo VIII)
SMUG1
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
O4-methyl T (O4meT) Ogt
Ada
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
T→C transition
transition
direct reversal (DR)
3'-P APTX
APEX1
XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX2
PNKP (PNK)
repair intermediate cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxo-GMP
p-BQ-C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene carcinogen
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1A (OPA) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
A→G transition
carcinogen
mutagenesis
transition
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
O2-methyl T (O2meT) AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:C hOGG1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
2-hydroxy-A (2-OH-A) MUTYH
MutY
reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
O6-methyl G (O6meG) Ada
Ogt
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
alkylating agents
G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
direct reversal (DR)
N7-methyl G (7meG) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxymethyl C no mutagenesis
8-oxoA Fpg (MutM)
hOGG1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
8-hydroxyA (8-OH-A) Fpg (MutM)
hOGG1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
A:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
no mutagenesis
3'-PUA termini XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
APTX
APEX1
APEX2
cancer chemotherapy
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
repair intermediate
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
p-BQ-A UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) in ssDNA ALKBH2 chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
2-oxoA from 2-oxoA:G MutY
MUTYH
reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methyl G (3meG) AlkA
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
O2-methyl C (O2meC) AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxymethyl U (5-OH-me-U) AlkA
Mug
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
TDG
Fpg (MutM)
MBD4 (MED1)
SMUG1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
5,6-dihydro T (5,6-diH-T) NEIL2
Nei (endo VIII)
Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
NTHL1
NEIL1
ionizing radiation (IR) mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-etheno-G (1,2εG) in dsDNA Mug
ANPG (MPG)
Mug
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
-1 frameshift
deletion
G→C transversion
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methyl T (3meT) FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
T→A transversion
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
C:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis
point mutation
p-BQ-G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene carcinogen Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
N1-methyl A (1meA) ALKBH3
AlkB
ALKBH2
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
A→T transversion
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
1-OH-propyl-G (hpG) propylene oxide (PPO)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
mutagenesis
point mutation
uracil glycol (Ug) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-ethano A (EA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) cell cycle arrest
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG) AlkA lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA ALKBH2 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
C→A transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-U (5-OH-6-H-U) Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
M3dA UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
carcinogen
mutagenesis
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:G SMUG1
MBD4 (MED1)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
5-formyl dU (5-foU) Fpg (MutM)
Mug
SMUG1
AlkA
Nth (endo III)
MBD4 (MED1)
NTHL1
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) A→G transition
G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
CPD UvrB
UvrC
PhrB
ERCC4 (XPF)
ERCC5 (XPG)
Phr1p
DDB2 (XPE)
UV radiation mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
direct reversal (DR)
Fapy-7meG Fpg (MutM)
hOGG1
NEIL1
NEIL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
FapyG:A NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
Fapy-7meG from Fapy-7meG:C hOGG1 vinyl chloride metabolites
methyl radicals
alkylating agents
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:G NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS) mutagenesis
point mutation
base excision repair (BER)
G:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
M1dG UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
carcinogen
G→A transition
G→C transversion
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
transversion
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3-methyl A (3meA) AlkA
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
AP-site
A→T transversion
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
5-methyl C (5meC) DNA methyltransferase no mutagenesis
T:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
mutagenesis
point mutation
T→A transversion
transversion
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
ALKBH2
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
A→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
5-fluoro-dU UNG
TDG
MBD4 (MED1)
SMUG1
cancer chemotherapy cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
cytosine glycol (Cg) NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
C→T transition
transition
base excision repair (BER)
thymine glycol (Tg) Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
T→C transition
transition
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
hOGG1
NEIL1
UvrC
UvrB
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
C→A transversion
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
hypoxanthine in DNA spontaneous deamination mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
5-bromoU TDG cancer chemotherapy
methyl bromide
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
7-methyl A (7meA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
A→G transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
DNA-psoralen UvrC
UvrB
NEIL1
psoralen cell cycle arrest
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
(6-4)PP UvrB
UvrC
DDB2 (XPE)
UV radiation mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response