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Bloom syndrome

Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate pre- and postnatal growth deficiency; sun-sensitive, telangiectatic, hypo- and hyperpigmented skin; predisposition to malignancy; and chromosomal instability.

Bloom syndrome is characterized by short stature and a facial rash that develops shortly after first exposure to sun. This rash can make a butterfly-shaped patch of reddened skin on the cheeks. The rash can develop on other sun-exposed areas such as the backs of the hands. Other clinical features include a high-pitched voice; distinct facial features, such as a long, narrow face, micrognathism of the mandible, and prominent nose and ears; pigmentation changes of the skin including hypo- and hyper-pigmented areas and cafe-au-lait spots; telangiectasias (dilated blood vessels) which can appear on the skin but also in the eyes; moderate immune deficiency, characterized by deficiency in certain immunoglobulin classes, that apparently leads to recurrent pneumonia and ear infections; hypo-gonadism characterized by a failure to produce sperm, hence infertility in males, and premature cessation of menses (premature menopause), hence sub-fertility in females. However, several women with Bloom syndrome have had children. Complications of the disorder may include chronic lung problems, diabetes, and learning disabilities. In a small number of persons, there is mental retardation. The most striking complication of the disorder is susceptibility to cancer.

OTHER NAME(S): Bloom–Torre–Machacek syndrome

ABREVIATION(S):
BLM
BL
BLS

TYPE: mental retardation (MR), skeletal abnormalities, risk of malignant disease, skin problem, chromosomal instability, immunodeficiency, sexual immaturity, sensitivity to radiation, telangiectasia

Related patway(s): Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, homologous recombination (HR)

DNAtraffic protein(s) related to disease: RECQL3 (BLM)

OMIM: 210900

Last modification date: July 2, 2011