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hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, TYPE 5

Mutations in more than one gene locus can be involved alone or in combination in the production of the HNPCC phenotype (also called Lynch syndrome). Most families with clinically recognized HNPCC have mutations in either MLH1 or MSH2 genes. HNPCC is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease associated with marked increase in cancer susceptibility. It is characterized by a familial predisposition to early onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extra-colonic cancers of the gastrointestinal, urological and female reproductive tracts. HNPCC is reported to be the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world. Cancers in HNPCC originate within benign neoplastic polyps termed adenomas. Clinically, HNPCC is often divided into two subgroups. Type I: hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer, a young age of onset, and carcinoma observed in the proximal colon. Type II: patients have an increased risk for cancers in certain tissues such as the uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine, skin, and larynx in addition to the colon. Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria: 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two; 2 or more generation affected; 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes. MSH6 mutations appear to be associated with atypical HNPCC and in particular with development of endometrial carcinoma or atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the presumed precursor of endometrial cancer. Defects in MSH6 are also found in familial colorectal cancers (suspected or incomplete HNPCC) that do not fulfill the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC.

OTHER NAME(S): colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis, type 5

ABREVIATION(S):
HNPCC5

TYPE: gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, risk of malignant disease, CANCER

Related patway(s): mismatch repair (MMR)

DNAtraffic protein(s) related to disease: MSH6

OMIM: 600678

Last modification date: July 3, 2011