methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)


OTHER NAMES:
methanesulfonic acid methyl ester
methyl mesylate


ABBREVIATIONS:
MMS


DESCRIPTION: Is an alkylating (methylating) agent (SN2 type).
Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating (methylating) agent (SN2 type) and a carcinogen. It is also a suspected reproductive toxicant, and may also be a skin/sense organ toxicant. It is used in cancer treatment.
MMS methylates DNA on N7-deoxyguanine and N3-deoxyadenine. Originally, this action was believed to directly cause double-stranded DNA breaks, because homologous recombination-deficient cells are particularly vulnerable to the effects of MMS. However, it is now believed that MMS stalls replication forks, and cells that are homologous recombination-deficient have difficulty repairing the damaged replication forks.

DNA DAMAGES:
N3-methyl G (3meG)
3-methyl A (3meA)
N3-methyl T (3meT)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA
N7-methyl G (7meG)
1-methyl G (1meG)
N1-methyl A (1meA)
7-methyl A (7meA)
3-methyl A (3-meA) in ssDNA
3-methyl C (3meC)


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE EFFECT(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
N3-methyl G (3meG) AlkA
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl A (3meA) AlkA
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
AP-site
A→T transversion
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methyl T (3meT) FTO
AlkB
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
T→A transversion
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA FTO
AlkB
cell cycle arrest
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
substitution
T→A transversion
transversion
direct reversal (DR)
N7-methyl G (7meG) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
1-methyl G (1meG) AlkB
ANPG (MPG)
G→A transition
G→T transversion
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
N1-methyl A (1meA) ALKBH3
AlkB
ALKBH2
ANPG (MPG)
A→T transversion
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
7-methyl A (7meA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
A→G transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl A (3-meA) in ssDNA AlkA AP-site
A→T transversion
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
mutagenesis
point mutation
stalled replication fork
transversion
base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl C (3meC) AlkB
ALKBH2
ALKBH3
ANPG (MPG)
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)

Last modification date: Aug. 28, 2011