cancer chemotherapy


OTHER NAMES:
chemotherapy
cancer treatment


DESCRIPTION: Chemotherapy (sometimes cancer chemotherapy) is the treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen.

Most commonly, chemotherapy acts by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. This means that it also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. This results in the most common side effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Newer anticancer drugs act directly against abnormal proteins in cancer cells; this is termed targeted therapy and is technically not chemotherapy.

DNA DAMAGES:
5-bromoU
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:G
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:A
3'-OH end
5'-TOP2 termini
5-fluoro-dU
intrAstrand crosslink
3'-TOP1 termini
3'-P
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs)
3'-PUA termini


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE EFFECT(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
5-bromoU TDG cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:G MBD4 (MED1) cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
5-fluoroU from 5-fluoroU:A SMUG1 cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
3'-OH end XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX1
APEX2
DnaQ
TREX2
TREX1 (DNase III)
apoptosis
cell cycle arrest
DNA replication
base excision repair (BER)
mismatch repair (MMR)
homologous recombination (HR)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
5'-TOP2 termini TDP2 cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
5-fluoro-dU UNG
TDG
MBD4 (MED1)
SMUG1
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
intrAstrand crosslink UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3'-TOP1 termini TDP1 apoptosis
cytotoxic
base excision repair (BER)
3'-P APTX
APEX1
XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX2
PNKP (PNK)
cell cycle arrest
cytotoxic
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
MUS81
EME1
ERCC1
SLX4
SLX1A
SLX1B
TOP3A
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
homologous recombination (HR)
DNA replication
3'-PUA termini XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
APTX
APEX1
APEX2
cytotoxic
stalled replication fork
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)

Last modification date: Aug. 13, 2011