acrolein (ACR)


OTHER NAMES:
prop-2-enal
propenal
acraldehyde
acrylic aldehyde
allyl aldehyde
ethylene aldehyde


ABBREVIATIONS:
ACR


DESCRIPTION: Acrolein is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. It is produced widely but is most often immediately reacted with other products due to its instability and toxicity.

Acrolein is a severe pulmonary irritant and lachrymatory agent. It was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is, however, not outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Dermal exposure of acrolein to the eyes (0.3ppm in air) can cause severe irritation. Acrolein is not a suspected human carcinogen; no studies have been conducted on the carcinogenic effects of acrolein on humans, but studies on rats have shown an increase in cancerous tumors from ingestion. In October 2006, researchers found connections between acrolein in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, acrolein is a possible metabolite of cyclophosphamide, a cytotoxic chemotherapy agent, and results in hemorrhagic cystitis. N-acetylcysteine or mesna are used to counteract the acrolein.

Due to its ability to damage myelin nerve sheaths, acrolein may be a factor in the development of multiple sclerosis. The antihypertensive drug hydralazine, a known scavenger of acrolein, was found to reduce myelin damage and significantly improve behavioral outcomes in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis).

*reactive keto-compounds*

DNA DAMAGES:
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
3,N4-hydroxypropyl-C (HPC)
1,N6-alpha-hydroxypropano-A (HPA)
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
3,N4-alpha-HPC
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs)


Filter

Click on a column header name to sort

NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE EFFECT(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
3,N4-hydroxypropyl-C (HPC) Mug DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-alpha-hydroxypropano-A (HPA) DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) carcinogen
cytotoxic
DNA backbone distortion
stalled replication fork
3,N4-alpha-HPC Mug base excision repair (BER)
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
MUS81
EME1
ERCC1
SLX4
SLX1A
SLX1B
TOP3A
cell cycle arrest
DNA backbone distortion
mutagenesis
stalled replication fork
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
homologous recombination (HR)
DNA replication

Last modification date: Sept. 1, 2011