DNA replication errors


OTHER NAMES:
DNA synthesis errors


DESCRIPTION: When copying undamaged DNA, polymerases generate base substitution errors at readily detectable rates, demonstrating that mispairs can bind with the stability and geometry ultimately needed for catalysis.

DNA synthesis errors include insertion or deletion of bases resulting from strand misalignment. As for base substitutions, insertion/deletion error rates vary widely in a polymerase- and DNA sequence-dependent manner, such that single base deletion error rates can sometimes exceed base substitution error rates. Misalignments with unpaired bases in the template strand result in deletions, whereas unpaired bases in the primer strand yield additions. Slippage probability may be modulated by fraying during polymerase translocation or during cycles of polymerase dissociation/association with the primer-template. Single base deletions can also result from misinsertion of a base followed by primer relocation to convert the mismatched terminus into a matched terminus with an unpaired template base in the upstream duplex. Insertion/deletion errors may also be initiated by misalignment in the active site when an incoming dNTP forms a correct Watson-Crick base pair but with the wrong template base.

DNA DAMAGES:
T:5-OH-U pair
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A
dU in dsDNA
A from A:C
dU in ssDNA
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T
A from A:G
C:5-OH-U pair
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G
T from T:T
Tg from Tg:G
T from T:G
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C
G:5-OH-U pair
deoxyuridine


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE EFFECT(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
T:5-OH-U pair mutagenesis
point mutation
T→A transversion
transversion
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A MutY
hOGG1
NEIL2
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
dU in dsDNA Ung
Mug
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
transition
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:C MutY
MUTYH
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
dU in ssDNA Mug
Ung
UNG
SMUG1
C→T transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T hOGG1
NEIL1
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:G MutY
MUTYH
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
C:5-OH-U pair mutagenesis
point mutation
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G hOGG1
NEIL1
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
T from T:T TDG base excision repair (BER)
Tg from Tg:G NEIL1
NTHL1
stalled replication fork base excision repair (BER)
T from T:G Mug
TDG
mutagenesis
point mutation
substitution
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C ANPG (MPG)
hOGG1
NEIL1
NEIL2
no mutagenesis base excision repair (BER)
G:5-OH-U pair G→A transition
mutagenesis
point mutation
transition
deoxyuridine Ung
Mug
TDG
SMUG1
UNG
AP-site
C→T transition
G→A transition
transition
base excision repair (BER)

Last modification date: Aug. 13, 2011