transition


DESCRIPTION: It is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T). Approximately two out of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are transitions.
Transitions can be caused by oxidative deamination and tautomerization. Although there are twice as many possible transversions, transitions appear more often in genomes, possibly due to the molecular mechanisms that generate them.
5-Methylcytosine is more prone to transition than unmethylated cytosine, due to spontaneous deamination. This mechanism is important because it dictates the rarity of CpG islands.

DNA DAMAGES:
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G
M1A (OPA)
5-bromoU
5-formyl dU (5-foU)
M1dG
5-hydroxy-U (5-OH-U)
O6-ethyl G (O6etG)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA)
N3-methyl T (3meT)
8-methyl G (8meG)
1,N6-ethano A (EA)
dU in dsDNA
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG)
dU in ssDNA
thymine glycol (Tg)
3-methyl C (3meC)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-C (5-OH-6-H-C)
O4-methyl T (O4meT)
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA
3-ethyl C (3etC)
O6-methyl G (O6meG)
5-hydroxy C (5-OH-C)
M1C (OPC)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) in ssDNA
A:5-OH-U pair
G:5-OH-U pair
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA
1-methyl G (1meG)
7-methyl A (7meA)
deoxyuridine
cytosine glycol (Cg)


Filter

Click on a column header name to sort

NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE SOURCE(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G MBD4 (MED1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
M1A (OPA) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5-bromoU TDG cancer chemotherapy
methyl bromide
base excision repair (BER)
5-formyl dU (5-foU) Fpg (MutM)
Mug
SMUG1
AlkA
Nth (endo III)
MBD4 (MED1)
NTHL1
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
M1dG UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5-hydroxy-U (5-OH-U) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Ung
Mug
Nei (endo VIII)
SMUG1
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
O6-ethyl G (O6etG) MGMT ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
ALKBH2
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
N3-methyl T (3meT) FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
8-methyl G (8meG) AlkA methyl radicals base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-ethano A (EA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) base excision repair (BER)
dU in dsDNA Ung
Mug
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
base excision repair (BER)
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG) AlkA lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
dU in ssDNA Mug
Ung
UNG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
base excision repair (BER)
thymine glycol (Tg) Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl C (3meC) AlkB
ALKBH2
ALKBH3
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-C (5-OH-6-H-C) Nth (endo III) reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
O4-methyl T (O4meT) Ogt
Ada
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
3-ethyl C (3etC) AlkB ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
O6-methyl G (O6meG) Ada
Ogt
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
5-hydroxy C (5-OH-C) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Mug
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
M1C (OPC) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) in ssDNA ALKBH2 chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
A:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
G:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA ALKBH2 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
1-methyl G (1meG) AlkB
ANPG (MPG)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
7-methyl A (7meA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
deoxyuridine Ung
Mug
TDG
SMUG1
UNG
spontaneous deamination base excision repair (BER)
cytosine glycol (Cg) NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)

Last modification date: Aug. 28, 2011