substitution


DESCRIPTION: A point mutation, or single base substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Often the term point mutation also includes insertions or deletions of a single base pair. One can categorize point mutations as follows:
- transitions: replacement of a purine base with another purine or replacement of a pyrimidine with another pyrimidine
- transversions: replacement of a purine with a pyrimidine or vice versa.

DNA DAMAGES:
Tg from Tg:A
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G
M1dG
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A
8-methyl G (8meG)
1,N2-etheno-G (εG) in ssDNA
1,N6-ethano A (EA)
A from A:C
dU from U:G
FapyG from FapyG:C
A from A:G
O2-methyl T (O2meT)
3-methyl C (3meC)
O4-methyl T (O4meT)
Tg from Tg:G
2-oxoA from 2-oxoA:G
O6-methyl G (O6meG)
Fapy-7meG from Fapy-7meG:C
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA
7-methyl A (7meA)
A from A:8-oxoG
5-bromoU
5-formyl dU (5-foU)
3,N4-etheno-C (εC) in dsDNA
N3-methyl T (3meT)
8-oxoG
dU in dsDNA
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T
thymine glycol (Tg)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G
O2-methyl C (O2meC)
T from T:G
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA
3-ethyl C (3etC)
3,N4-ethano-C (EC)
N7-methyl G (7meG)
hypoxanthine in DNA
uracil glycol (Ug)
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA
2-oxoA
1-methyl G (1meG)
N1-methyl A (1meA)


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE SOURCE(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
Tg from Tg:A NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G MBD4 (MED1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
M1dG UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A MutY
hOGG1
NEIL2
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
8-methyl G (8meG) AlkA methyl radicals base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-etheno-G (εG) in ssDNA ALKBH2 lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-ethano A (EA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) base excision repair (BER)
A from A:C MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
dU from U:G Mug
Ung
UNG
TDG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:C hOGG1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:G MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
O2-methyl T (O2meT) AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl C (3meC) AlkB
ALKBH2
ALKBH3
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
O4-methyl T (O4meT) Ogt
Ada
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
Tg from Tg:G NEIL1
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
2-oxoA from 2-oxoA:G MutY
MUTYH
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
O6-methyl G (O6meG) Ada
Ogt
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
Fapy-7meG from Fapy-7meG:C hOGG1 vinyl chloride metabolites
methyl radicals
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
7-methyl A (7meA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:8-oxoG MUTYH reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
5-bromoU TDG cancer chemotherapy
methyl bromide
base excision repair (BER)
5-formyl dU (5-foU) Fpg (MutM)
Mug
SMUG1
AlkA
Nth (endo III)
MBD4 (MED1)
NTHL1
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
3,N4-etheno-C (εC) in dsDNA Mug
TDG
AlkB
SMUG1
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
N3-methyl T (3meT) FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
8-oxoG Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
hOGG1
NEIL1
UvrC
UvrB
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
dU in dsDNA Ung
Mug
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
base excision repair (BER)
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG) AlkA lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
thymine glycol (Tg) Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
O2-methyl C (O2meC) AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
T from T:G Mug
TDG
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
3-ethyl C (3etC) AlkB ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
3,N4-ethano-C (EC) AlkA bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
base excision repair (BER)
N7-methyl G (7meG) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
hypoxanthine in DNA spontaneous deamination
uracil glycol (Ug) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA ALKBH2 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
2-oxoA MUTYH
MutY
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
1-methyl G (1meG) AlkB
ANPG (MPG)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
N1-methyl A (1meA) ALKBH3
AlkB
ALKBH2
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)

Last modification date: July 3, 2011