apoptosis


DESCRIPTION: It is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that may occur in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and quickly remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage.

DNA DAMAGES:
5'-TOP2 termini
3'-P
3'-TOP1 termini
5-hydroxymethyl U (5-OH-me-U)
3'-OH end


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE SOURCE(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
5'-TOP2 termini TDP2 cancer chemotherapy
repair intermediate
3'-P APTX
APEX1
XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX2
PNKP (PNK)
repair intermediate nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
3'-TOP1 termini TDP1 repair intermediate base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxymethyl U (5-OH-me-U) AlkA
Mug
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
TDG
Fpg (MutM)
MBD4 (MED1)
SMUG1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
3'-OH end XthA (exo III)
Nfo (endo IV)
APEX1
APEX2
DnaQ
TREX2
TREX1 (DNase III)
repair intermediate DNA replication
base excision repair (BER)
mismatch repair (MMR)
homologous recombination (HR)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)

Last modification date: July 3, 2011