carcinogen


DESCRIPTION: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Cancer is a disease in which damaged cells do not undergo programmed cell death. Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Usually DNA damage, if too severe to repair, leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell.

DNA DAMAGES:
M1A (OPA)
p-BQ-A
M3C
aflatoxin-G
M1dG
3,N4-alpha-OH-gamma-methyl-propano-C (mHPC)
aflatoxin-FapyG
M3dA
1,N2-alpha-methyl-gamma-OH-propano-G (mHPG)
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
p-BQ-G
M1C (OPC)
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
p-BQ-C
M2G


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE SOURCE(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
M1A (OPA) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
p-BQ-A UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M3C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
aflatoxin-G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
aflatoxin Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1dG UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3,N4-alpha-OH-gamma-methyl-propano-C (mHPC) Mug crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
base excision repair (BER)
aflatoxin-FapyG Fpg (MutM)
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
aflatoxin Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
M3dA UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N2-alpha-methyl-gamma-OH-propano-G (mHPG) UvrC
UvrB
crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
p-BQ-G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1C (OPC) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
p-BQ-C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M2G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response

Last modification date: July 3, 2011