mutagenesis


DESCRIPTION: Is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner, either in nature or experimentally by the use of chemicals or radiation.

DNA DAMAGES:
1,N2-beta-OH-ethano G (HEG)
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G
T:5-OH-U pair
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-T (5-OH-6-H-T)
5-hydroxymethyl U (5-OH-me-U)
1-OH-propyl A (1hpA)
8-methyl G (8meG)
1,N2-etheno-G (εG) in ssDNA
1,N6-ethano A (EA)
FapyG from FapyG:C
A from A:G
3-methyl C (3meC)
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:G
2-hydroxy-A (2-OH-A)
2-oxoA from 2-oxoA:G
3-propyl C (3pC)
O6-methyl G (O6meG)
Fapy-7meG from Fapy-7meG:C
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) in ssDNA
7-methyl A (7meA)
AP-site
5,6-dihydroxy U (5,6-diOH-U)
5-formyl dU (5-foU)
3,N4-etheno-C (εC) in dsDNA
FapyA
8-oxoG
1,N6-alpha-hydroxyethano-A (HEA)
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:A
dU in dsDNA
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG)
dU in ssDNA
p-BQ-C
thymine glycol (Tg)
1-OH-propyl-G (hpG)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-C (5-OH-6-H-C)
1-ethyl A (1etA)
1-propyl A (1pA)
M3C
3-methyl A (3meA)
3,N4-ethano-C (EC)
1,N2-alpha-methyl-gamma-OH-propano-G (mHPG)
M1C (OPC)
hypoxanthine in DNA
(6-4)PP
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA
1-methyl G (1meG)
3-methyl A (3-meA) in ssDNA
5-OH-meU in ssDNA
Tg from Tg:A
B[a]P-guanine
M1A (OPA)
M1dG
N2-OH-propyl-G (hpG)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A
O6-ethyl G (O6etG)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA)
A from A:C
dU from U:G
FapyG from FapyG:G
T from T:T
O4-methyl T (O4meT)
3-methylC (3meC) in RNA
FapyG:A
5,6-dihydro U (5,6-diH-U)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA
A:5-OH-U pair
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-U (5-OH-6-H-U)
5,6-dihydro T (5,6-diH-T)
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs)
M2G
A from A:8-oxoG
p-BQ-A
5-bromoU
FapyG from FapyG:T
FapyG
5-hydroxy-U (5-OH-U)
1,N2-etheno-G (1,2εG) in dsDNA
N1-OH-ethyl A (1heA)
N3-methyl T (3meT)
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T
C:5-OH-U pair
5,6-dihydroxy C (5,6-diOH-C)
T from T:G
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA
3,N4-alpha-OH-gamma-methyl-propano-C (mHPC)
3-ethyl C (3etC)
M3dA
1,N6-alpha-hydroxypropano-A (HPA)
N7-methyl G (7meG)
G:5-OH-U pair
uracil glycol (Ug)
2-oxoA
N1-methyl A (1meA)
3-methylC (3meC) in ssDNA
CPD


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NAME STRUCTURE PROTEINS DNA DAMAGE SOURCE(S) PATHWAY(S) RELATED
1,N2-beta-OH-ethano G (HEG) lipid peroxidation (LPO)
trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)
5-formyl dU from 5-formylU:G MBD4 (MED1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
T:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-T (5-OH-6-H-T) Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxymethyl U (5-OH-me-U) AlkA
Mug
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
TDG
Fpg (MutM)
MBD4 (MED1)
SMUG1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
1-OH-propyl A (1hpA) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
8-methyl G (8meG) AlkA methyl radicals base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-etheno-G (εG) in ssDNA ALKBH2 lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-ethano A (EA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:C hOGG1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
base excision repair (BER)
A from A:G MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
3-methyl C (3meC) AlkB
ALKBH2
ALKBH3
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:G SMUG1
MBD4 (MED1)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
2-hydroxy-A (2-OH-A) MUTYH
MutY
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
2-oxoA from 2-oxoA:G MutY
MUTYH
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
3-propyl C (3pC) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
O6-methyl G (O6meG) Ada
Ogt
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
Fapy-7meG from Fapy-7meG:C hOGG1 vinyl chloride metabolites
methyl radicals
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) in ssDNA ALKBH2 chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
7-methyl A (7meA) AlkA
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
AP-site Nfo (endo IV)
APEX1
APEX2
XthA (exo III)
TDP1
UvrC
UvrB
DDB2 (XPE)
unstable adducts
repair intermediate
nucleotide incision repair (NIR)
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5,6-dihydroxy U (5,6-diOH-U) Nth (endo III)
Ung
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
5-formyl dU (5-foU) Fpg (MutM)
Mug
SMUG1
AlkA
Nth (endo III)
MBD4 (MED1)
NTHL1
Nei (endo VIII)
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
3,N4-etheno-C (εC) in dsDNA Mug
TDG
AlkB
SMUG1
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
FapyA Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
8-oxoG Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
hOGG1
NEIL1
UvrC
UvrB
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N6-alpha-hydroxyethano-A (HEA) lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
5-OH-meU from 5-OH-meU:A SMUG1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
dU in dsDNA Ung
Mug
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-alpha-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
N2,3-etheno-G (N2,3-εG) AlkA lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
dU in ssDNA Mug
Ung
UNG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination
DNA replication errors
base excision repair (BER)
p-BQ-C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
thymine glycol (Tg) Fpg (MutM)
Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
NTHL1
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
1-OH-propyl-G (hpG) propylene oxide (PPO)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:G hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-C (5-OH-6-H-C) Nth (endo III) reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
1-ethyl A (1etA) ALKBH2
AlkB
ALKBH3
ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1-propyl A (1pA) propylene oxide (PPO)
alkylating agents
M3C UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3-methyl A (3meA) AlkA
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
3,N4-ethano-C (EC) AlkA bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-alpha-methyl-gamma-OH-propano-G (mHPG) UvrC
UvrB
crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1C (OPC) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
hypoxanthine in DNA spontaneous deamination
(6-4)PP UvrB
UvrC
DDB2 (XPE)
UV radiation nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
3,N4-ethenoC (εC) in ssDNA ALKBH2 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
direct reversal (DR)
1-methyl G (1meG) AlkB
ANPG (MPG)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
3-methyl A (3-meA) in ssDNA AlkA N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
streptozotocin
base excision repair (BER)
5-OH-meU in ssDNA SMUG1
MBD4 (MED1)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
heterochromatin formation
Tg from Tg:A NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
B[a]P-guanine UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide adduct
benzopyrene
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1A (OPA) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
M1dG UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
N2-OH-propyl-G (hpG) propylene oxide (PPO)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:A MutY
hOGG1
NEIL2
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
O6-ethyl G (O6etG) MGMT ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1,N6-etheno-A (1εA) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
ALKBH2
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
A from A:C MutY
MUTYH
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
dU from U:G Mug
Ung
UNG
TDG
SMUG1
spontaneous deamination base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:G NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
T from T:T TDG DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
O4-methyl T (O4meT) Ogt
Ada
MGMT
SN1 methylating agents
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
3-methylC (3meC) in RNA AlkB alkylating agents direct reversal (DR)
FapyG:A NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
5,6-dihydro U (5,6-diH-U) Nei (endo VIII)
NEIL2
Nth (endo III)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
N3-methylT (3meT) in ssDNA FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
A:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
5-hydroxy-6-hydro-U (5-OH-6-H-U) Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
5,6-dihydro T (5,6-diH-T) NEIL2
Nei (endo VIII)
Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
NTHL1
NEIL1
ionizing radiation (IR) base excision repair (BER)
intErstrand crosslinks (ICLs) UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
MUS81
EME1
ERCC1
SLX4
SLX1A
SLX1B
TOP3A
bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
mitomycin C
psoralen
cisplatin
nitrogen mustard
cancer chemotherapy
acrolein (ACR)
crotonaldehyde (CRA)
trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
homologous recombination (HR)
DNA replication
M2G UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
A from A:8-oxoG MUTYH reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
p-BQ-A UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
benzene Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
5-bromoU TDG cancer chemotherapy
methyl bromide
base excision repair (BER)
FapyG from FapyG:T NTHL1 reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
FapyG Fpg (MutM)
hOGG1
NEIL1
NEIL3
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
UV radiation
base excision repair (BER)
5-hydroxy-U (5-OH-U) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Ung
Mug
Nei (endo VIII)
SMUG1
NEIL1
NEIL2
NTHL1
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
1,N2-etheno-G (1,2εG) in dsDNA Mug
ANPG (MPG)
Mug
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
N1-OH-ethyl A (1heA) ANPG (MPG) ethylene oxide (EtO) base excision repair (BER)
N3-methyl T (3meT) FTO
AlkB
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
1,N2-gamma-hydroxypropano-G (HPG) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:T hOGG1
NEIL1
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
C:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
5,6-dihydroxy C (5,6-diOH-C) Nth (endo III) reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
T from T:G Mug
TDG
DNA replication errors base excision repair (BER)
1,N6-etheno-A in (1εA) dsDNA AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
ANPG (MPG)
AlkB
chloroethylene oxide
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
vinyl chloride metabolites
chloroacetaldehyde (CAA)
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
3,N4-alpha-OH-gamma-methyl-propano-C (mHPC) Mug crotonaldehyde (CRA)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
base excision repair (BER)
3-ethyl C (3etC) AlkB ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)
alkylating agents
direct reversal (DR)
M3dA UvrC
UvrB
ERCC5 (XPG)
ERCC4 (XPF)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
malondialdehyde (MDA)
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
1,N6-alpha-hydroxypropano-A (HPA) acrolein (ACR)
lipid peroxidation (LPO)
N7-methyl G (7meG) AlkA
Fpg (MutM)
Tag
ANPG (MPG)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
SN1 methylating agents
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
G:5-OH-U pair reactive oxygen species (ROS)
DNA replication errors
ionizing radiation (IR)
uracil glycol (Ug) Nth (endo III)
Fpg (MutM)
Nth (endo III)
Nei (endo VIII)
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
ionizing radiation (IR)
base excision repair (BER)
2-oxoA MUTYH
MutY
reactive oxygen species (ROS) base excision repair (BER)
N1-methyl A (1meA) ALKBH3
AlkB
ALKBH2
ANPG (MPG)
SN2 methylating agents
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)
methyl chloride
methyl bromide
methyl iodide
alkylating agents
base excision repair (BER)
direct reversal (DR)
3-methylC (3meC) in ssDNA ALKBH3
ALKBH1
AlkB
alkylating agents direct reversal (DR)
CPD UvrB
UvrC
PhrB
ERCC4 (XPF)
ERCC5 (XPG)
Phr1p
DDB2 (XPE)
UV radiation Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway
nucleotide excision repair (NER)
prokaryotic (SOS) response
direct reversal (DR)

Last modification date: July 3, 2011